"In spite of its strong Crusader underpinnings, there was nothing unusual about the African slave trade until 1492. It fit a pattern that had existed for centuries wherein slaves from Europe were sold in Egypt, Central Asia and India, while slaves from sub-Saharan Africa were sold in North Africa, Spain and India. The slave trade declined towards the end of the 15th century because the European market was saturated. Lisbon had about ten thousand Muslim and African slaves and could use no more.


The discovery of America changed this picture. It transformed what was up till then a small trade in ivory, gold and slaves into an intricate global web of trade, piracy and politics. The initial objective of Spain in her American colonies was gold. In their hunt for precious metals, the Spanish obliterated the ancient civilizations of the Aztecs of Mexico, the Mayans of Guatemala and the Incas of Peru. Ninety percent of the men were killed while the women died as a result of slavery and diseases brought in by the Europeans. Within a span of ten years, from 1500 to 1510, the population of Cuba decreased from about one million to twenty thousand. When the Mayan gold was exhausted, the Spanish went after the silver mines of Mexico. The residual indigenous population was enslaved and put to work in the silver mines. Working conditions were so harsh that by 1520, the American colonies were almost drained of their native manpower.

It was about this time that a new crop, unknown in the Americas up until then, was introduced into the New World. The discovery of America had resulted in a vast interchange of agricultural products between the New World and the Old. The potato, tomato and red pepper traveled from the Americas to Europe and Asia, while sugar and cotton went in the other direction.

The introduction of sugar transformed America, Europe and Africa alike. Its impact on history was far greater than that of Mayan gold treasures or the rich silver mines of Mexico. To understand how it happened, it is important to know the process of sugar extraction. The word sugar derives from the Sanskrit word su-ka-ra, meaning a sweet substance. Sugarcane is a tropical crop, which originated in the Indo-Gangetic plains in ancient India. Until the 16th century, it was imported in small quantities into Europe by Muslim merchants and their Venetian partners, and found its way to the dining tables of the rich. When direct European contacts were initiated with India (1496), it became more readily available. Demand multiplied. The islands of the West Indies, and some in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa, were ideally suited to grow sugar cane, a crop that is labor intensive. Native American labor had been exhausted. Moreover, the Native Americans were not suited for the kind of backbreaking work required on the sugar plantations. So, labor had to be imported.

"

An extract from Prof. Dr. Nazeer Ahmed, PhD on the Trans-Atlantic Slave trade and how it relates to Muslim people and Muslim history in Africa.

More African history.

(via dynamicafrica)


dianarossweave:

odinsblog:

Five Myths About Crime in Black America—and the Statistical Truths

In the wake of Trayvon Martin’s death [and Renisha McBride and Jonathan Ferrell], we’ve seen a lot of discussion of the larger societal issues that play into how and when people are perceived as criminals. There were hoodies, there were marches, and there were frank talks from parent to child about how to minimize the danger of being a young person of color. On the other side, there were justifications of George Zimmerman’s actions: a smear campaign against Martin’s character, and plenty of writers explaining that statistically, blacks are simply more dangerous to be around.

That framing ignores the realities behind the numbers. Here are five myths about crime and people of color.

Shani O. Hilton

BEEN LOOKIN FOR THIS


girljanitor:

thatlittlefreakfromlotr:

native-detroiter:

marfmellow:

aboutexhaleprivilege:

The best thing is that these people are complaining that white people ruin everything and are the devil and only steal everything from PoC while 99% of them sits in a…

Read this. Like, now.


delibutler asked:"I noticed that, amidst your (admittedly interesting) rant, you failed to answer the person's question."

iamtheibetch:

medievalpoc:

This question, as asked? If you really want a list of people of color “from history” who were neither enslaved nor anyone’s servant…

John Archer, Mayor of Battersea, South London

Black Artists in Europe c. 1800s

Interactive Map on Black Londoners 1800-1900

Black Sailors in the British Navy during the Battle of Trafalgar (video)

Billy Waters and the Black and South Asian Sailors of the British Navy

Paul Cuffee, Ship Owner, Navigator and Abolitionist

Ira Aldridge, Shakespearean Actor in Victorian London

50,000 Free People of Color and Creole people in Louisiana

List of the Monarchs of Hawai’i (with some European Portraits)

Monarchs of Tonga

Monarchy of Fiji

Prime Ministers of Samoa; Malietoa of Samoa

African History from the Dawn of Time

The Kingdom of Ghana

List of Black/African Saints

Mongol Elements in Western Medieval Art

The History of Tunisia (Carthage)

Black Roman Emperor Septimus Severus

List of 50 especially great Black Kings and Queens

Andromeda

Racism and the Rediscovery of Ancient Nubia (“Kush”, from the Christian Bible)

The Kilwa Sultanate of Tanzania

Most of the Egyptian Royalty of ever

All of the rulers from the History of what is now Nigeria

Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors 三皇五帝
Xia Dynasty 夏
Shang Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty 周
Qin Dynasty 秦
Han Dynasty 漢/汉
Three Kingdoms Period 三國/三国
Jin Dynasty 晉/晋
Sixteen Kingdoms Period 十六國/十六国

 Sovereignties established by Wu Hu

Northern and Southern Dynasties 南北朝
Sui Dynasty 隋
Tang Dynasty 唐
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 五代十

Independent Regimes during Ten Kingdoms

Liao Dynasty 辽
Song Dynasty 宋
Western Xia 西夏
Jin Dynasty 金
Yuan Dynasty 元
Ming Dynasty 明

Shun Dynasty 順
Southern Ming Dynasty 南明

Qing Dynasty 清

Yuan Shikai’s Empire of China 中華帝國/中华帝国

EGYPT:

Ancient Egypt:

Hellenic Epoch / Ptolemaic Dynasty

Islamic Egypt:

EAST AFRICA

Nubia / Sudan:

Ethiopia:

Zanzibar:

Omani Sultans of Zanzibar

NORTH AFRICA

Algeria:

Libya:

Mauritania:

Morocco:

Tunisia:

Modern Tunisia

WEST AFRICA

Benin:

Ghana:

Mali:

Niger:

Nigeria:

CENTRAL & SOUTH AFRICA

Angola:

Modern Angola

Central Africa:

Chad:

Lesotho:

South Africa:

 Madagascar:

Modern Madagascar

Ghanian Princes as Exchange Students in London

Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, A Man of Learning in London

Sir Morien, Black Knight of the Round Table

Queen Charlotte of Great Britain and Ireland

A Middle-Class Black British Woman

John Moore of York and the Black Freedman of the Tudor Era

Black and South Asian Men of the 19th Century British Navy

Samuel Coleridge Taylor, Composer

Roman Deserters at Hadrian’s Wall

George Augustus Polgreen Bridgetower, Musical Prodigy

Olaudah Equiano, British Abolitionist and Author, Merchant, and Explorer

From Majesty to Mystery-Change in Meanings of Black Madonnas from the 16th to 19th Centuries

Nigra Sum, sed Formosa: The Black Saints in Catholic Tradition

The Madonna and the Cuckoo: An Exploration in European Symbolic Conceptions

The Cult of the Black Virgin

Further Reading/Bibliography:

Can I stop now? Are we good?

Are they really insisting you list them all? I….fine. I demand they list all the NON black people in the same category and unless they can name them all individually and in totality then they didn’t exist and as it turns out white people are a myth. wth.


saltysojourn:

Follow this link to find a short clip and analysis that considers intersections of privilege and colonialism.


"[F]or the first several years the SAT was offered, males scored higher than females on the Math section but females achieved higher scores on the Verbal section. ETS policy-makers determined that the Verbal test needed to be “balanced” more in favor of males, and added questions pertaining to politics, business and sports to the Verbal portion. Since that time, males have outscored females on both the Math and Verbal sections. Dwyer notes that no similar effort has been made to “balance” the Math section, and concludes that, “It could be done, but it has not been, and I believe that probably an unconscious form of sexism underlies this pattern. When females show the superior performance, ‘balancing’ is required; when males show the superior performance, no adjustments are necessary.” "

“Gender Bias in College Admissions Tests”, FairTest.org

And then people urge me everything is fine, of course it is, when you’re ignoring statistics that is.

(via cwnl)

Fun fact: SAT tests predict college performance pretty well for men, but they strongly underpredict college performance for women. http://spp.sagepub.com/content/early/2012/12/20/1948550612469038.abstract

HMMMM

(via brute-reason)

I think I’ve reblogged this before, but that study needs to be shared.

(via conjecturesandconversations)


medievalpoc:

1800s Week!
Konstantin Andreyevich Somov
Portrait of Alexander Pushkin 
Russia (1899)
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin is considered by many to be the greatest Russian poet of all time, as well as the founder of modern Russian Literature. As for his style, he has been claimed variously by Romantics, neo-Classicists, and Realists.
His grandfather, Abram Petrovich Gannibal, was an African kidnapped and brought to Russia. He became a major general, military engineer, and nobleman of the Russian Empire. Pushkin wrote an unfinished historical novel about him entitled Peter the Great’s Negro. Abram Gannibal’s son, Ivan Gannibal, also rose to military prominence, garnering victories in the Russo-Turkic war, and founded the city of Kherson.

Pushkin is usually credited with developing Russian literature. Not only is he seen as having originated the highly nuanced level of language which characterizes Russian literature after him, but he is also credited with substantially augmenting the Russian lexicon. Where he found gaps in the Russian vocabulary, he devised calques. His rich vocabulary and highly sensitive style are the foundation for modern Russian literature. His talent set up new records for development of the Russian language and culture. He became the father of Russian literature in the 19th century, marking the highest achievements of 18th century and the beginning of literary process of the 19th century. Alexander Pushkin introduced Russia to all the European literary genres as well as a great number of West European writers. He brought natural speech and foreign influences to create modern poetic Russian. Though his life was brief, he left examples of nearly every literary genre of his day: lyric poetry, narrative poetry, the novel, the short story, the drama, the critical essay, and even the personal letter.

[x] [x] [x] [x]

medievalpoc:

1800s Week!

Konstantin Andreyevich Somov

Portrait of Alexander Pushkin

Russia (1899)

Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin is considered by many to be the greatest Russian poet of all time, as well as the founder of modern Russian Literature. As for his style, he has been claimed variously by Romantics, neo-Classicists, and Realists.

His grandfather, Abram Petrovich Gannibal, was an African kidnapped and brought to Russia. He became a major general, military engineer, and nobleman of the Russian Empire. Pushkin wrote an unfinished historical novel about him entitled Peter the Great’s Negro. Abram Gannibal’s son, Ivan Gannibal, also rose to military prominence, garnering victories in the Russo-Turkic war, and founded the city of Kherson.

Pushkin is usually credited with developing Russian literature. Not only is he seen as having originated the highly nuanced level of language which characterizes Russian literature after him, but he is also credited with substantially augmenting the Russian lexicon. Where he found gaps in the Russian vocabulary, he devised calques. His rich vocabulary and highly sensitive style are the foundation for modern Russian literature. His talent set up new records for development of the Russian language and culture. He became the father of Russian literature in the 19th century, marking the highest achievements of 18th century and the beginning of literary process of the 19th century. Alexander Pushkin introduced Russia to all the European literary genres as well as a great number of West European writers. He brought natural speech and foreign influences to create modern poetic Russian. Though his life was brief, he left examples of nearly every literary genre of his day: lyric poetry, narrative poetry, the novel, the short story, the drama, the critical essay, and even the personal letter.

[x] [x] [x] [x]


wannatakeawalkonthewildside asked:"are there more blacks in royalty other then Charlotte and dido Elizabeth belle?"

medievalpoc:

bellepullman:

blackfangirlsunite:

theuppitynegras:

queennubian:

medievalpoc:

um

African History from the Dawn of Time

The Kingdom of Ghana

The History of Tunisia (Carthage)

Black Roman Emperor Septimus Severus

List of 50 especially great Black Kings and Queens

Andromeda

Racism and the Rediscovery of Ancient Nubia (“Kush”, from the Christian Bible)

The Kilwa Sultanate of Tanzania

Most of the Egyptian Royalty of ever

All of the rulers from the History of what is now Nigeria

oh and

EGYPT:

Ancient Egypt:

Hellenic Epoch / Ptolemaic Dynasty

Islamic Egypt:

EAST AFRICA

Nubia / Sudan:

Ethiopia:

Zanzibar:

Omani Sultans of Zanzibar

NORTH AFRICA

Algeria:

Libya:

Mauritania:

Morocco:

Tunisia:

Modern Tunisia

WEST AFRICA

Benin:

Ghana:

Mali:

Niger:

Nigeria:

CENTRAL & SOUTH AFRICA

Angola:

Modern Angola

Central Africa:

Chad:

Lesotho:

South Africa:

 Madagascar:

best post ever

and it includes West and Southern African rulers

"But there isn’t any Black princesses! It’s hard to just make one up!"

How are people so thick as to think that Western European royalty is the ONLY Royalty?  

Have we got Polynesian royalty on this list?  I kinda skimmed it a bit….

List of the Monarchs of Hawai’i (with some European Portraits)

Monarchs of Tonga

Monarchy of Fiji

Prime Ministers of Samoa; Malietoa of Samoa

Sadly, colonization kind of destroyed a lot of EVERYthing in Oceania and various Polynesian nations. For example, the Kingdom of Tahiti was “abolished” by France in 1842 (ish), and Tahiti and its protectorates were “annexed” by France.

But the artwork from the Monarchy survives:

image

Portrait de la reine Pomaré (Queen Pomare of Tahiti), Charles Giraud, 1852. 

You can read a bit more about monarchies and former monarchies in Oceania and Polynesia, including many nations of Black indigenous folks and their kings, queens, princesses, et cetera, here. Most of them have been “replaced” with European monarchs, and/or are considered basically “colonies” of European nations even to this day.



delladilly:

i’ve been reading for most of the day now about howard ashman, the lyricist for the little mermaid & beauty and the beast. he was one of the biggest creative forces behind both films, helping to shape their characters, narrative arcs, and themes as well as their music; he was…


"Equal numbers of black dads and white dads tend to agree that it’s important to be a father who provides emotional support, discipline, and moral guidance. There’s one area of divergence in the way the two groups approach their parental responsibilities: Black dads are even more likely to think it’s important to financially provide for their children."

deliciousdannydevito:
burn these statistics into your mind. never forget who it is experiencing the brunt of the prison system’s violence

deliciousdannydevito:

burn these statistics into your mind. never forget who it is experiencing the brunt of the prison system’s violence